U.S. Human Trafficking Statistics & Laws by State

Human Trafficking
  • It’s a modern day slavery
  • It’s a crime under federal and international law
  • It’s a crime in EVERY state in the U.S.

What is human trafficking? How common is human trafficking? Where does trafficking happen? What are the laws and penalties?

This comprehensive report examines hard facts and data surrounding human trafficking and exploitation to get to the bottom of these questions and more.


The issue of human trafficking has received more widespread media attention and public concern in recent years, particularly in light of high profile individuals who have been charged with child sex trafficking and human exploitation—such as Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell, ex-USA Gymnastics coach John Geddert, as well as Canadian clothing designer Peter Nygard.

While the precise numbers of trafficked individuals are impossible to know based on the dynamic, unique and complicated nature of human trafficking, it is possible to uncover trends and statistics about modern slavery in order to better understand the scope of the issue and debunk rampant misinformation.

Table of Contents

 

 

What is Human Trafficking?

Defining human trafficking and the different types of exploitation


The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines human trafficking as:

"The Act of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation."

(source)

Here in the U.S., the Department of State defines "trafficking in persons," "human trafficking" and "modern slavery" as interchangeable umbrella terms referring to:

"...a crime whereby traffickers exploit and profit at the expense of adults or children by compelling them to perform labor or engage in commercial sex. When a person younger than 18 is used to perform a commercial sex act, it is a crime regardless of whether there is any force, fraud, or coercion."

(source)

Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as:

"sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery."

(source)

While the exact definition of human trafficking varies slightly by country and organization, what all of these definitions have in common is that human trafficking is a form of modern slavery that involves moving or recruiting persons (adult or child) by using fraud, coercion or threats in order to exploit, enslave or abuse.

 

 

Types of Human Trafficking

According to the State Department, the U.S. recognizes 2 primary forms of human trafficking:

Forced Labor

Forced Labor

An estimated 16 million people were in forced labor in the global private economy in 2016. Forced labor is defined as "the range of activities involved when a person uses force, fraud, or coercion to obtain the labor or services of another person." Examples include domestic servitude, debt bondage and forced child labor. Industries and sectors that most commonly exploit workers include manufacturing, construction, hospitality, agriculture, car washes and nail salons.

Sex Trafficking

Sex Trafficking

Sex trafficking is defined as "the range of activities involved when a trafficker uses force, fraud, or coercion to compel another person to engage in a commercial sex act or causes a child to engage in a commercial sex act." Examples of where sex trafficking can occur include prostitution, escort agencies, strip clubs, massage spas, internet chat rooms, pornography, mail order brides and sex tourism.

In addition to these federally recognized crimes, private and non-profit organizations (such as Stop The Traffik) list other types of human trafficking such as:

  • Forced marriage. This is when a person is forced or pressured to marry someone in order to gain access into a country or earn some benefit. Globally, there were an estimated 15.4 million people in forced marriages in 2016.
  • Forced criminal activity. Forced criminality occurs when a person is coerced or deceived into carrying out crimes such as drug trafficking, pick-pocketing, bag-snatching, begging, ATM theft and counterfeiting, as well as taking part in welfare fraud.
  • Child soldiers. When children and teens under 18 are recruited as soldiers for military purposes or combat, they are considered victims of trafficking and exploitation. In 2017, the United Nations estimated that 56 non-state armed groups and 7 state armed forces were recruiting and using children.
  • Organ harvesting. Trafficking of human organs occurs when parts of a person's body are removed, commonly the kidneys and liver, and sold on the illegal (black) market. Extortion and misdiagnosis of false ailments are common tactics for harvesting organs. It has been estimated that up to 10 percent of all organ transplants involve trafficked organs.

 

 

How Common is Human Trafficking?

Statistics and data on the prevalence of human trafficking


Now that we've defined what human trafficking is and the various types of exploitation, it's worth understanding the scale of the issue by taking a look at how prevalent this crime is—both globally and here in the United States.

Around the world, there are an estimated 40.3 million victims trapped in modern-day slavery, including 24.9 million in forced labor and 15.4 million in forced marriage. (source)

There are 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the world. (source)

1 in 4 victims of modern slavery are children. (source)

71% of trafficking victims around the world are women and girls and 29% are men and boys. (source)

30.2 million victims (75%) are aged 18 or older, while the number of trafficked children under the age of 18 is estimated at 10.1 million (25%).

Sexual exploitation is by far the most commonly identified form of human trafficking (79%), followed by forced labor (18%). (source)

Between 2012-2017, 89 million people experienced some form of modern slavery for periods of time ranging from a few days to the whole 5 years.

Modern slavery occurs in every region of the world. Modern slavery was most prevalent in Africa (7.6 per 1,000 people), followed by Asia and the Pacific (6.1 per 1,000) then Europe and Central Asia (3.9 per 1,000). (Note: This data should be interpreted cautiously due to lack of available data in some regions, notably the Arab States and the Americas.) (source)

Globally, human traffickers pocket $150 billion per year in profits. Nearly two-thirds ($99 billion) of that profit comes from commercial sexual exploitation. (source)

 

 

Human Trafficking During the Pandemic


Many leading experts fear that the coronavirus pandemic is causing an increase in human trafficking and exploitation. In addition, support services for victims of trafficking have been closed due to the pandemic.

According to Morgane Nicot of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime:

"During the coronavirus pandemic, human trafficking has been driven increasingly underground, fuelling fears of more violent means of control used against victims who are being exploited during the pandemic.

Traffickers have also expanded their reach through the misuse of internet and communication technology to advertise, recruit and exploit persons, and especially lure children whom they groom for sexual online exploitation."

(source)


Human Trafficking is Rising in Texas During the Pandemic

Victims’ rights groups say that human trafficking in Texas is rising during the COVID-19 pandemic. That’s because economic problems caused by the pandemic have made the problem of human trafficking worse, according to Samantha Hernandez, Mobilization Director for Elijah Rising, a Houston-based organization that helps victims of trafficking restore their lives.



Here in the United States, human trafficking statistics paint a similarly bleak picture.

 

 

Best and worst states for human trafficking (2019)

*Since its inception in 2013, the FBI's Human Trafficking data collection has, for the most part, seen a steady increase in state participation. However, as of 2019, 5 states either did not participate or only submitted partial data through the Bureau of Indian Affairs. These states are indicated on the map in black.

Human Trafficking Offenses & Clearances By State (2019)
Data from the FBI
State Type of Exploitation Total per state
  Commercial sex acts (prostitution) Involuntary servitude
Charged Cleared Charged Cleared Charged Cleared
Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0
Alaska 7 2 0 0 7 2
Arizona 52 9 1 1 53 10
Arkansas 1 0 0 0 1 0
California* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Colorado 44 13 4 2 48 15
Connecticut 5 1 3 1 8 2
Delaware 15 4 10 2 25 6
Florida 106 64 11 8 117 72
Georgia 48 6 6 0 54 6
Hawaii 5 2 0 0 5 2
Idaho 2 0 0 0 2 0
Illinois 29 0 8 1 37 1
Indiana 6 1 4 0 10 1
Iowa* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Kansas 2 2 0 0 2 2
Kentucky 21 5 7 0 28 5
Louisiana 7 6 3 3 10 9
Maine 4 1 1 0 5 1
Maryland 29 15 8 3 37 18
Massachusetts 23 8 12 4 35 12
Michigan 4 3 0 0 4 3
Minnesota 175 134 13 0 188 134
Mississippi 2 1 0 0 2 1
Missouri 21 9 6 2 27 11
Montana 3 0 0 0 3 0
Nebraska* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Nevada 182 64 0 0 182 64
New Hampshire 5 0 0 0 5 0
New Jersey 2 0 2 2 4 2
New Mexico 3 0 3 1 6 1
New York* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
North Carolina 33 12 23 8 56 20
North Dakota 4 0 0 0 4 0
Ohio 7 1 1 0 8 1
Oklahoma 5 2 0 0 5 2
Oregon 28 10 9 9 37 19
Pennsylvania* N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 2 0
Rhode Island 8 7 4 4 12 11
South Carolina 19 8 3 1 22 9
South Dakota 2 0 0 0 2 0
Tennessee 42 20 4 1 46 21
Texas 337 124 113 89 450 213
Utah 75 64 0 0 75 64
Vermont 6 1 0 0 6 1
Virginia 37 28 4 1 41 29
Washington 53 26 3 0 56 26
West Virginia 49 19 1 0 50 19
Wisconsin 99 53 7 7 106 60
Wyoming 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 1,607 725 274 150 1,883 875

Source: Human Trafficking, 2019 from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program's Human Trafficking data collection (FBI)

Disclaimer

According to the FBI:

"Regarding the data reported to the UCR Program, it is important to note that these data represent only one view of a complex issue—the law enforcement perspective. However, due to the nature of human trafficking, many of these crimes are never reported to the local, state, tribal, and federal LEAs that investigate them. In addition to the law enforcement facet in fighting these crimes, there are victim service organizations whose mission it is to serve the needs of the victims of human trafficking. In order to have the complete picture of human trafficking, it would be necessary to gather information from all of these sources."

In other words, just because certain states report 0 or low amounts of human trafficking offenses, doesn't mean exploitation never or rarely occurs in that state. This data merely reflects what is reported by local law enforcement and the justice system.

For a more comprehensive view of human trafficking, one must also consider looking at victim service organizations and human trafficking hotlines—such as the National Human Trafficking Hotline—in order to truly understand the prevalence of exploitation in each given state.


It's also worth noting that the FBI data provided above clearly shows that a large portion of human trafficking charges are ultimately cleared, meaning there wasn't sufficient evidence to convict a person of the crime. In fact, over 45 percent of charges involving commercial sex acts (prostitution) were cleared, and nearly 55 percent of involuntary servitude charges were ultimately cleared.

In all, nearly half (46.4 percent) of human trafficking charges in the U.S. were cleared or dropped in 2019.

In addition to the FBI Human Trafficking data collection, the National Human Trafficking Hotline "maintains one of the most extensive data sets on the issue of human trafficking in the United States."

These statistics are based on "aggregated information" received by the National Hotline through phone calls, texts, online chats, emails, and online tip reports.

Again, while this data doesn't fully reflect the true rate of human trafficking in a given state, it does provide additional insight where the FBI data is lacking.

 

 

Human Trafficking Cases by State (2019)

Human Trafficking Cases By State (2019)
Data from the National Human Trafficking Hotline
Type of Exploitation
State Sex trafficking Labor trafficking Sex & labor trafficking Not specified Total per state
Alabama 60 10 7 5 82
Alaska 9 2 1 3 15
Arizona 150 26 14 44 234
Arkansas 62 14 4 6 86
California 1,118 158 69 162 1,507
Colorado 127 20 16 13 176
Connecticut 42 2 1 7 52
Delaware 29 4 2 3 38
Florida 640 128 46 82 896
Georgia 309 73 20 15 417
Hawaii 23 6 2 4 35
Idaho 16 1 6 3 26
Illinois 195 28 15 29 267
Indiana 113 27 7 10 157
Iowa 73 12 4 9 98
Kansas 74 6 5 7 92
Kentucky 84 28 8 16 136
Louisiana 113 23 15 8 159
Maine 23 5 4 4 36
Maryland 127 36 11 13 187
Massachusetts 80 12 3 12 107
Michigan 282 35 17 30 364
Minnesota 81 11 2 10 104
Mississippi 127 7 4 10 148
Missouri 183 22 6 23 233
Montana 19 4 4 11 38
Nebraska 41 8 6 7 62
Nevada 200 15 9 15 239
New Hampshire 9 0 5 1 15
New Jersey 207 19 13 8 247
New Mexico 45 5 5 9 64
New York 312 52 23 67 454
North Carolina 172 33 12 49 266
North Dakota 15 2 1 5 23
Ohio 314 44 21 71 450
Oklahoma 77 15 5 12 109
Oregon 94 18 5 15 132
Pennsylvania 229 18 13 11 271
Rhode Island 12 0 1 1 14
South Carolina 96 22 9 12 139
South Dakota 15 7 1 2 25
Tennessee 131 27 4 18 180
Texas 805 111 56 108 1,080
Utah 67 11 5 7 90
Vermont 3 0 1 5 9
Virginia 132 31 5 21 189
Washington 199 42 13 18 272
West Virginia 27 7 3 1 38
Wisconsin 71 10 5 8 94
Wyoming 8 2 1 1 12
Total 7,440 1,199 515 1,011 10,164

Source: The National Human Trafficking Hotline

 

 

2019 Top 10 States With HIGHEST Cases of Human Trafficking


According to the National Hotline, the states with the highest numbers of human trafficking cases in 2019 were:

California California
1,507


TexasTexas
1,080


FloridaFlorida
896


New YorkNew York
454


OhioOhio
450


GeorgiaGeorgia
417


MichiganMichigan
364


WashingtonWashington
272


PennsylvaniaPennsylvania
271


llinoisllinois
267


Which state has the HIGHEST human trafficking rates?
California

1,507 cases reported in 2019

 

 

2019 Top 10 States With LOWEST Number of Cases


MaineMaine
36


HawaiiHawaii
35


IdahoIdaho
26


South DakotaSouth Dakota
25


North DakotaNorth Dakota
23


AlaskaAlaska
15


New HampshireNew Hampshire
15


Rhode IslandRhode Island
14


WyomingWyoming
12


VermontVermont
9


Which state has the LOWEST human trafficking rates?
Vermont

9 cases reported in 2019

 

 

Top 10 Cities for Human Trafficking


The following statistics are based solely on substantive calls (# of calls per 100,000 people) about human trafficking and issues related to human trafficking made to the National Human Trafficking Hotline between December 7, 2007 and December 31, 2016. (source)

Washington, DC
401


Atlanta, GA
317


Orlando, FL
285


Miami, FL
271


Las Vegas, NV
237


Sacramento, CA
222


St. Louis, MO
198


Baton Rouge, LA
176


Columbus, OH
170


Richmond, VA
170


 

 

Human Trafficking Laws by State

What are the penalties and sentencing guidelines for human trafficking?


In all 50 states, human trafficking is a criminal offense that is charged as a felony. However, the classification of felony and resulting penalties (such as jail time and fines) varies by state and offense. Below, we've listed the relevant statutes and laws for each state regarding human trafficking and exploitation offenses, as well as the sentencing guidelines enshrined into state law.

Note: The following general penalty classifications can be enhanced due to aggravating circumstances, and therefore the penalties may vary on a case-by-case basis. For this reason, if you are charged with a human trafficking offense, you should consult with an experienced criminal defense lawyer near you as soon as possible to determine the possible punishments and plan an appropriate defense strategy.

Human Trafficking Laws & Penalties By State
State Statutes Penalties
Alabama

Human trafficking in the first degree
(AL Code § 13A-6-152)

Human trafficking in the first degree
(AL Code § 13A-6-153)

Class A felony


Class B felony

Alaska

Human trafficking in the first degree
(AK Stat § 11.41.360)

Human trafficking in the second degree
(AK Stat § 11.41.365)

Prostitution (AK Stat § 11.66.100)

Promoting prostitution in the first degree
(AK Stat § 11.66.110)

Promoting prostitution in the second degree
(AK Stat § 11.66.120)

Promoting prostitution in the third degree
(AK Stat § 11.66.130)

Promoting prostitution in the fourth degree
(AK Stat § 11.66.135)

Class A felony


Class B felony


Class B misdemeanor

Class A felony


Class B felony


Class C felony


Class A misdemeanor

Arizona

Unlawfully obtaining labor or services
(AZ Rev Stat § 13-1306)

Sex trafficking (AZ Rev Stat § 13-1307)

Trafficking of persons for forced labor or services (AZ Rev Stat § 13-1308)

Class 4 felony


Class 2 felony


Class 2 felony

Arkansas

Trafficking of persons (AR Code § 5-18-103)


Patronizing a victim of human trafficking
(AR Code § 5-18-104)

Class A felony
(Class Y felony if the victim was a minor)

Class B felony
(Class A felony if the victim was a minor)

California

False Imprisonment and Human Trafficking (Penal Code Section 236.1)

Forced labor or services:

  • 5, 8 or 12 years in California state prison, and
  • Fine of up to $500,000.

Commercial sex, child pornography, or extortion:

  • 8, 14 or 20 years in state prison,
  • Fine of up to $500,000, and
  • Register as a sex offender.

Commercial sex act with a minor:

  • 5-12 years in prison, OR a sentence of 15 years to life (if the jury determines that you used force, fear, violence, or threat of injury to the alleged victim),
  • Fine of up to $500,000), and
  • Register as a sex offender.
Colorado

Human trafficking for involuntary servitude - human trafficking of a minor for involuntary servitude (CO Rev Stat § 18-3-503)

Human trafficking for sexual servitude - human trafficking of a minor for sexual servitude
(CO Rev Stat § 18-3-504)

Class 3 felony
(Class 2 felony for a minor)


Class 3 felony
(Class 2 felony for a minor)

Connecticut

Trafficking in persons (CGS § 53a-192a)

Class A felony

Delaware

Trafficking an individual, forced labor and sexual servitude (11 Del. C. 1953, § 787)

(b) Prohibited activities.
(1) Trafficking an individual


(2) Forced labor


(3) Sexual servitude


(4) Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude


(5) Trafficking of persons for use of body parts



Class C felony
(Class B felony for a minor)

Class C felony
(Class B felony for a minor)

Class C felony
(Class B felony for a minor)

Class D felony
(Class C felony for a minor)


Class A felony

Florida

Human trafficking
(Florida Statute 787.06)

For commercial sexual activity in which any child under the age of 18, or in which any person who is mentally defective or mentally incapacitated as those terms are defined in s. 794.011(1)

First-degree felony


Life felony

Georgia

Trafficking of persons for labor or sexual servitude (O.C.G.A. 16-5-46)

Felony
At least 1 to 20 years prison time (or at least 10 to 20 years for crimes against a minor)

Hawaii

Sex trafficking (HI Rev Stat § 712-1202)

Class A felony

Idaho

Human trafficking (ID Code § 18-8603)

Up to 25 years in prison (unless a more severe penalty is otherwise prescribed by law)

Illinois

Trafficking of Persons and Involuntary Servitude (720 ILCS 5/Art. 10A)

(a) Involuntary servitude

(1) by causing or threatening to cause physical harm to any person

(2) by physically restraining or threatening to physically restrain another person

(3) by abusing or threatening to abuse the law or legal process

(4) by knowingly destroying, concealing, removing, confiscating or possessing any actual or purported passport or other immigration document, or any other actual or purported government identification document, of another person

(5) by using intimidation, or using or threatening to cause financial harm to or by exerting financial control over any person, is guilty of a Class 4 felony.

(b) Involuntary servitude of a minor

(1) In cases involving a minor between the ages of 17 and 18 years, not involving overt force or threat

(2) In cases in which the minor had not attained the age of 17 years, not involving overt force or threat

(3) In cases in which the violation involved overt force or threat

(c) Trafficking of persons for forced labor or services






Class X felony


Class 1 felony


Class 2 felony



Class 3 felony





Class 4 felony






Class 1 felony



Class X felony



Class X felony


Class 1 felony

Indiana

Promotion of human labor trafficking
(IC 35-42-3.5-1)

Promotion of human sexual trafficking
(IC 35-42-3.5-1.1)

Promotion of child sexual trafficking; promotion of sexual trafficking of a younger child
(IC 35-42-3.5-1.2)

Child sexual trafficking (IC 35-42-3.5-1.3)

Human trafficking (IC 35-42-3.5-1.4)

Level 4 felony


Level 4 felony



Level 3 felony


Level 2 felony

Level 5 felony

Iowa

Human trafficking (IA Code § 710A.2)

Class D felony (Class C felony if the victim is under 18)

Kansas

Human trafficking; aggravated human trafficking (KS Stat § 21-5426)

Severity level 2, person felony (Aggravated human trafficking is a severity level 1, person felony)

Kentucky

Human trafficking (KY Rev Stat § 529.100)


Promoting human trafficking (KY Rev Stat § 529.110)

Class C felony (Class B felony for "serious physical injury to a trafficked person")

Class D felony
(Class C felony for minor victims)

Louisiana

Human trafficking
(LA Rev Stat § 14:46.2)

Trafficking of children for sexual purposes
(LA Rev Stat § 14:46.3)

Up to a $50,000 fine, 50 years in prison, or both (Up to a $25,000 fine, 25 years in prison, or both, for child trafficking)

Up to a $100,000 fine and life in prison

Maine

Aggravated sex trafficking
(17-A ME Rev Stat § 852)

Sex Trafficking (17-A ME Rev Stat § 853)

Patronizing prostitution of minor or person with mental disability (17-A ME Rev Stat § 855)

Class B crime


Class C crime


Class D or C crime

Maryland

Human trafficking (§ 11-303)

Misdemeanor (Up to a $5,000 fine or 10 years in prison, or both)

Crimes involving a minor (Up to a $15,000 fine or 25 years in prison, or both)

Massachusetts

Trafficking of persons for sexual servitude; trafficking of persons under 18 years for sexual servitude; trafficking by business entities; penalties; tort actions brought by victims (MA Gen L, Part IV, Title I, Ch. 265, Section 50)

Trafficking of persons for forced service; victims under 18 years; trafficking by business entities; penalties; tort actions brought by victims (MA Gen L, Part IV, Title I, Ch. 265, Section 51)


Up to a $25,000 fine and 20 years in prison





Up to a $25,000 fine and life in prison

Michigan

Selling travel services to facilitate prostitution or human trafficking in other jurisdictions
(M.C.L. 750.459(2)(3))

Human trafficking violation (M.C.L. 750.462f(1)(a))

Human trafficking violation resulting in bodily injury (M.C.L. 750.462f(1)(b))

Human trafficking violation resulting in serious bodily injury (M.C.L. 750.462f(1)(c))

Human trafficking violation involving death or the commission of certain felonies
(M.C.L. 750.462f(1)(d))

Obtaining a minor for commercial sexual activity or for forced labor or services (M.C.L. 750.462f(2)

Attempting, conspiring, or soliciting another to violate human trafficking laws (M.C.L. 750.462f(3)

Class E felony
(Class D felony if it involves a minor)


Class D felony

Class D felony


Class B felony


Class A felony



Class B felony


Varies

Minnesota

Labor trafficking (609.282)

Unlawful conduct with respect to documents in furtherance of labor or sex trafficking (609.283)

Solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution; sex trafficking (609.322)

First degree



Second degree

Up to a $40,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both

Up to a $20,000 fine or 10 years in prison, or both




Up to a $50,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both (Up to a $60,000 fine or 25 years in prison, or both, for an offense involving a minor)


Up to a $40,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both

Mississippi

Anti-Human Trafficking Act; prohibited conduct; penalty (MS Code § 97-3-54.1)

Anti-Human Trafficking Act; destruction, concealment, or confiscation of passport or other immigration document for purpose of preventing person's freedom of movement or ability to travel; penalties (MS Code § 97-3-54.2)

Up to 30 years in prison



Up to 5 years in prison

Missouri

Abusing an individual through forced labor — penalty (MO Stat § 566.203)

Trafficking for the purpose of slavery, involuntary servitude, peonage, or forced labor — penalty (MO Stat § 566.206)

Trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation — penalty (MO Stat § 566.209)

Sexual trafficking of a child, first degree, penalty (MO Stat § 566.210)

Sexual trafficking of a child, second degree, penalty (MO Stat § 566.211)

Contributing to human trafficking through the misuse of documentation, penalty
(MO Stat § 566.215)

Up to a $250,00 fine or 20 years in prison, or both



Up to a $250,00 fine or 20 years in prison, or both


Up to a $250,00 fine or 20 years in prison, or both


25 years to life in prison


Up to a $250,00 fine or 10 years to life in prison, or both


Class E felony

Montana

Trafficking of persons (45-5-702)




Involuntary servitude (45-5-703)


Sexual servitude (45-5-704)


Patronizing victim of sexual servitude (45-5-705)

Up to a $50,00 fine or 15 years to life in prison, or both (Up to a $100,00 fine or 50 years in prison, or both, if the offense involved a minor)

Up to a $50,00 fine or 15 years to life in prison, or both (Up to a $100,00 fine or 50 years in prison, or both, if the offense involved a minor)

Up to a $50,00 fine or 15 years to life in prison, or both

Up to a $50,00 fine or 15 years to life in prison, or both

Nebraska

Human trafficking; labor trafficking or sex trafficking; labor trafficking of a minor or sex trafficking of a minor; prohibited acts; penalties (28-831)

Labor trafficking of a minor or sex trafficking of a minor

Labor trafficking or sex trafficking

Any person, other than a trafficking victim, who knowingly benefits from or participates in a venture which has, as part of the venture, an act that is in violation of this section






Class IB felony


Class II felony


Class IIA felony

Nevada

Pandering and sex trafficking: Definitions; penalties; exception (NRS 201.300)

Facilitating sex trafficking; penalty (NRS 201.301)

Category B felony
(Category A felony for minors)

Category B felony

New Hampshire

Peonage (633:7)

Trafficking in Persons (633:7)

Class A misdemeanor

Class A felony

New Jersey

Human trafficking (2C:13-8)

First-degree felony

New Mexico

Sexual exploitation of children by prostitution (NM ST § 30-6A-4)

Receiving any pecuniary profit as a result of a child age 14-16 engaging in a prohibited sexual act with another

Receiving any pecuniary profit as a result of a child under the age of 13 engaging in a prohibited sexual act with another

Knowingly hiring or offering to hire a child under the age of 16 to engage in any prohibited sexual act is guilty of a second degree felony.

Any parent, legal guardian or person having custody or control of a child under 16 years of age who knowingly permits that child to engage in or to assist any other person to engage in any prohibited sexual act or simulation of such an act for the purpose of producing any visual or print medium depicting such an act

Human trafficking (NM ST § 30-52-1)





Second-degree felony



Third-degree felony



Second-degree felony




Third-degree felony





Third-degree felony

New York

Sex trafficking (Section 230.34)

Sex trafficking of a child (Section 230.34-a)

Class B felony

Class B felony

North Carolina

Human trafficking (14-43.11)


Involuntary servitude (§ 14-43.12)


Sexual servitude (§ 14-43.13)

Unlawful sale, surrender, or purchase of a minor (§ 14-43.14)

Class C felony
(Class B2 felony if the victim is a minor)

Class F felony
(Class C felony if the victim is a minor)

Class D felony
(Class C felony if the victim is a minor)

Class F felony

North Dakota

Trafficking an individual (12.1-41-02)


Forced labor (12.1-41-03)


Sexual servitude (12.1-41-04)


Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude
(12.1-41-05)

Patronizing a minor for commercial sexual activity (12.1-41-06)

Class A felony
(Class AA felony if the victim is a minor)

Class A felony
(Class AA felony if the victim is a minor)

Class A felony
(Class AA felony if the victim is a minor)

Class B felony
(Class A felony if the victim is a minor)


Class A or B felony

Ohio

Trafficking in persons (2905.32)

First-degree felony

Oklahoma

Human Trafficking - Definitions - Prohibited Acts - Punishment - Affirmative Defense (21 O.S. § 748)

Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years to life in prison, or both

(Up to a $250,000 fine or 15 years to life in prison, or both, if the victim is a minor)

Oregon

Subjecting another person to involuntary servitude in the second degree (ORS 163.263)

Subjecting another person to involuntary servitude in the first degree (ORS 163.264)

Trafficking in persons (ORS 163.266)

Class C felony


Class B felony


Class B felony
(Class A felony if the victim is a minor)

Pennsylvania

Trafficking in individuals (§ 3011)

Involuntary servitude (§ 3012)

Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude (§ 3013)

Unlawful conduct regarding documents (§ 3013)

First-degree felony

First-degree felony

First-degree felony

Third-degree felony

Rhode Island

Trafficking an individual (§ 11-67.1-3)
Forced labor (§ 11-67.1-4)
Sexual servitude (§ 11-67.1-5)

Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude
(§ 11-67.1-6)

Patronizing a minor for commercial sexual activity (§ 11-67.1-7)

Up to a $20,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both (Up to a $40,000 fine or 50 years in prison, or both, if the victim is a minor)

Up to a $10,000 fine or 10 years in prison, or both (Up to a $20,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both, if the victim is a minor)

Up to a $20,000 fine or 10 years in prison, or both

South Carolina

Trafficking in persons; penalties; minor victims; defenses (§ 16-3-2020)













Unlawful disclosure; trespassing notice; unlawful entrance or presence on grounds of domestic violence or trafficking shelter; exceptions; penalties (§ 16-3-2080)

First offense
Up to 15 years in prison

Second offense
Up to 30 years in prison

Third offense or more
Up to 45 years in prison

First offense against a minor
Up to 30 years in prison

Second offense or more against a minor
Up to 45 years in prison


Up to a $3,000 fine or 3 years in prison, or both

South Dakota

First degree human trafficking--Felony--Attempt against minor (§ 22-49-2)

Second degree human trafficking--Felony
(§ 22-49-3)

Hiring person forced to engage in sexual activity--Felony (§ 22-49-4)

Class 2 felony


Class 4 felony


Class 6 felony

Tennessee

Involuntary labor servitude
(Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-13-307)

Trafficking for forced labor or services
(Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-13-308)

Trafficking for commercial sex act
(Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-13-309)

Promoting the prostitution of a minor
(Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-13-512)

Class C felony
(Class B felony if the victim is under 13)

Class C felony


Class B felony
(Class A felony if the victim is under 15)

Class E or D felony

Texas

Trafficking of persons (Sec. 20A.02)


Continuous trafficking of persons (Sec. 20A.03)

Second-degree felony
(First-degree felony if the victim was a minor)

First-degree felony

Utah

Human trafficking of a child -- Penalties
(§ 76-5-308.5)

Human trafficking and human smuggling -- Penalties (§ 76-5-309)

Aggravated human trafficking and aggravated human smuggling -- Penalties (§ 76-5-310)

Human trafficking of a vulnerable adult -- Penalties (§ 76-5-311)

First-degree felony


Second-degree felony


First or second-degree felony


First-degree felony

Vermont

Human trafficking (13 V.S.A. § 2652)

Aggravated human trafficking (13 V.S.A. § 2653)

Patronizing or facilitating human trafficking
(13 V.S.A. § 2654)

Solicitation (13 V.S.A. § 2654)

Up to a $500,000 fine or life in prison, or both

Up to a $100,000 fine or life in prison, or both

Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both


Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both

Virginia

Commercial sex trafficking; penalties (§ 18.2-347.1)

Taking, detaining, etc., person for prostitution, etc., or consenting thereto; human trafficking
(§ 18.2-355)

Class 5 felony
(Class 3 felony if the victim is a minor)

Class 4 felony

Washington

Trafficking (RCW 9A.40.100)

Coercion of involuntary servitude (RCW 9A.40.110)

Class A felony

Class C felony

West Virginia

Human trafficking of an individual; penalties (§61-14-2)



Use of forced labor; penalties (§61-14-3)



Use of persons in debt bondage; penalties
(§61-14-4)


Sexual servitude; penalties (§61-14-5)



Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude; penalties (§61-14-6)

Up to a $200,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both (Up to a $300,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both, if the victim was a minor)

Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both (Up to a $300,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both, if the victim was a minor)

Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both (Up to a $300,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both, if the victim was a minor)

Up to a $200,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both (Up to a $300,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both, if the victim was a minor)

Up to a $100,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both (Up to a $300,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both, if the victim was a minor)

Wisconsin

Human trafficking (Section 940.302)

Class D or F felony

Wyoming

Human trafficking in the first degree; penalty
(6-2-702)

Human trafficking in the second degree; penalty
(6-2-703)

Forced labor or servitude; penalty (6-2-704)

Sexual servitude of adult (6-2-705)

Sexual servitude of a minor (6-2-706)

Patronizing a victim of sexual servitude (6-2-707)

Up to a $10,000 fine or 50 years in prison, or both


Up to a $10,000 fine or 20 years in prison, or both


Up to a $10,000 fine or 15 years in prison, or both

Up to a $3,000 fine or 3 years in prison, or both

Up to a $5,000 fine or 5 years in prison, or both

Up to a $5,000 fine or 3 years in prison, or both

 

 

Additional Human Trafficking Resources

More information for victims of exploitation and the general public


If you live in the United States and suspect human trafficking—or believe you may have witnessed exploitation—then you should immediately report it to your local authorities (call 911) or the National Human Trafficking Hotline (1-888-373-7888).

Below, we've put together a list of resources and organizations in the U.S. where you can learn more about human trafficking:



The Celebritization of Human Trafficking The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, Vol. 653, p. 25-30, May 2014

Dina Francesca Haynes
New England Law | Boston (April 10, 2013)

Every Celebrity Named in Jeffrey Epstein Files Since his arrest, photos have surfaced of the late Epstein and British socialite Maxwell with numerous high profile-celebrities and politicians.

Emma Nolan (July 31, 2020)

 

Human Trafficking and Child Exploitation Is a Serious Criminal Offense

Individuals who are accused of such crimes face severe penalties, such as years or decades of imprisonment. What's more, such charges can permanently ruin a person's reputation and relationships, not to mention jeopardize their employment, housing and education opportunities. That's why you should consult with an experienced criminal defense attorney near you as soon as possible if you or a loved one are caught up in a trafficking charge.

Houston defense attorney Neal Davis has handled some of the most challenging state and federal cases across Texas and the United States. For over 20 years, he has defended clients in all types of matters from the investigation phase through appeal, including arguing before the Texas Criminal Court of Appeals and appearing as counsel in a landmark U.S. Supreme Court case. His clients come from all walks of life, and face all kinds of charges.

If you or a loved one have been charged with human trafficking, contact the Neal Davis Law Firm for your confidential case evaluation as soon as possible.

Criminal Defense Court Process

FREE E-BOOK

Learn all about the legal process and your legal rights.

Get Your Free Copy Now

Related Articles From Our Criminal Defense Blog

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
Sex Trafficking Charges Against World-Famous Fashion Designer

Longtime fashion designer Peter Nygard has been indicted on 9 criminal […]

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
Sex Trafficking Myths Follow Super Bowls & Other Major Sports Events

The most recent Super Bowl LV in Tampa, FL resumed a common claim […]

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
Human Trafficking is Rising in Texas During the Pandemic

Victims’ rights groups say that human trafficking in Texas is rising […]

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
“Massive” Human Trafficking Stings Can Net Dozens of Suspects At Once

Undercover “sting” operations by law enforcement can net as many as […]

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
Why is Houston a Hub for Human Trafficking?

Houston is a great city in so many ways. But it may surprise some Houstonians […]

unsatisfactory termination of probation texas
Sex Trafficking Can Lead to Life in Prison

How serious are sex trafficking charges and the crime’s punishments upon […]

Board Certified, Criminal Law – Texas Board of Legal Specialization (2009-2021), AV Rated by Martindale Hubbell (2015), and listed as a Best Lawyer in America (2015-2020)
He focused on listening and helping, not just explaining his fees
Father of Juvenile Client I.Z.
5-star review image
He doesn't give up, no matter what you're up against
M.F.
5-star review image
Got my life back
K.W.
5-star review image

Read All Reviews